Sitting Meditation (Mindfulness) and Music Meditation Effects on Overall Anxiety and Test Anxiety in a College Student Population


  • John E. Lothes II University of North Carolina Wilmington
  • Sara Matney University of North Carolina Wilmington
  • Zayne Naseer University of North Carolina Wilmington



mindfulness, test anxiety, anxiety, college students


Background: Research shows that mindfulness interventions for test anxiety in a college student population are beneficial (Lothes, Mochrie, Wilson, & Hakan, 2021). This study expands on the existing literature by examining how distance learning mindfulness practices may affect anxiety in college students.

Aim: This study assessed the effects of online mindfulness practices over a five-week period on test anxiety in college students.

Method: Participants included 31 college students that were randomly assigned to either a sitting meditation or music meditation condition. The two groups were also split in half to add a wait list control condition. A weekly schedule of mindfulness practices was given to participants to complete on their own.

Results: Participants in the sitting meditation condition showed significant within-group reductions in test anxiety, overall anxiety, and mindfulness from start to finish. The music meditation group showed no changes in test anxiety. However, overall anxiety showed decreases in scores, and overall mindfulness did show significant increases for this group.

Conclusion: Mindfulness may play a role in the reduction of anxiety and test anxiety. Further research is needed to more definitively assess how music meditation may impact anxiety.






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